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    What happened on July 9

    • July 9, 0455 Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed emperor of the Western Roman Empire.

    • July 9, 1357 "Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor assists laying the foundation stone of Charles Bridge in Prague."

    • July 9, 1540 England's King Henry VIII 6-mo marriage to Anne of Cleves annulled

    • July 9, 1541 "Estevo da Gama departs Massawa, leaving behind 400 matchlock men and 150 slaves under his brother Christovo da Gama, with orders to assist the Emperor of Ethiopia defeat Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi who has invaded his Empire."

    • July 9, 1595 Johannes Kepler inscribes geometric solid construction of universe

    • July 9, 1749 Edward Cornwallis c1713-1753 founds new settlement of Halifax founded as naval settlement to counter the French fort at Louisbourg.

    • July 9, 1755 British Gen E Braddock mortally wounded during French & Indian War

    • July 9, 1776 Dec of Ind read aloud to Gen Washington's troops in NY

    • July 9, 1789 "In Versailles, the National Assembly reconstitutes itself as the National Constituent Assembly and begins preparations for a French constitution."

    • July 9, 1790 "Russo-Swedish War: Second Battle of Svensksund -In the Baltic Sea, the Swedish Navy captures one third of the Russian fleet."

    • July 9, 1791 "Third Fleet arrives in Australia from England, HMS Queen bringing first Irish convicts to be transported."

    • July 9, 1793 Act Against Slavery passed in Upper Canada and importation of slaves into Lower Canada is prohibited.

    • July 9, 1800 Mt Vernon Gardens becomes site of first summer theatre in US

    • July 9, 1803 Navigator Matthew Flinders returns to Sydney after voyage around Australia in the brig Investigator.

    • July 9, 1810 "France annexes Holland following the abdication and flight of Napoleon's brother Louis Bonaparte, who has been king since 1806 but refused to join Napoleon's Continental system
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    • July 9, 1810 Napoleon annexes the Kingdom of Holland as part of the First French Empire.

    • July 9, 1815 "Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Prigord, Prince de Benevente becomes Prime Minister of France."

    • July 9, 1816 Argentina declares independence from Spain

    • July 9, 1846 "By an Act of Congress, the Washington, DC area south of the Potomac River (39 mi or about 100 km) is returned to Virginia."

    • July 9, 1846 Capt Montgomery claims Yerba Buena (SF) for US

    • July 9, 1850 "President Zachary Taylor , the twelfth president of the United States, died from an attack of cholera morbus, and was succeeded by Millard Fillmor"

    • July 9, 1850 President Zachary Taylor dies and Millard Fillmore becomes the 13th President of the United States.

    • July 9, 1853 Adm Perry & US Navy visit Japan

    • July 9, 1853 "Commodore Perry Sails in Tokyo Bay representing the U.S. government, sailed into Tokyo Bay, Japan, with a squadron of four vessels"

    • July 9, 1860 Temperature hits 115? F in Ft Scott & 112? F in Topeka Kansas

    • July 9, 1862 "Gen John Hunt Morgan captures Tompkinsville, Ky"

    • July 9, 1863 Union troops enter Port Hudson

    • July 9, 1867 An unsuccessful expedition led by E.D Young set out to search for Dr David Livingstone (Scottish Missionary and explorer).

    • July 9, 1868 The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution ratified guaranteeing African Americans full citizenship and all persons in the United States due process of law.

    • July 9, 1868 The first black cabinet member in SC (Francis L Cardozo-sect of state)

    • July 9, 1872 "Doughnut cutter patented by John Blondel, Thomaston, Me"

    • July 9, 1875 "Francis Preston Blair Jr famed St Louis lawyer, dies at 54"

    • July 9, 1875 The Herzegovinian rebellion against the Ottoman Empire begins.

    • July 9, 1877 The All-England Croquet Club at Wimbledon staged the world's first lawn tennis championship on

    • July 9, 1878 "An improved corncob pipe patented by Henry Tibbe, Washington, Mo"

    • July 9, 1887 Reportedly paper napkins were used for the first time by John Dickinson (stationery manufacturers) at the company's annual dinner.

    • July 9, 1887 "The first paper napkins are introduced at a dinner at a British hotel by John Dickenson, a stationery manufacturer."

    • July 9, 1893 "Daniel H Williams performs ""world's first successful heart coperation"""

    • July 9, 1900 Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act is enacted by the United Kingdom Parliament.

    • July 9, 1900 Queen Victoria gives royal assent to an act creating the Commonwealth of Australia thus uniting separate colonies on the continent under one federal government.

    • July 9, 1910 Walter Brookins becomes first to pilot an airplane to 1 mile altitude

    • July 9, 1914 "The first US duplicate auction bridge championship held, Lake Placid, NY"

    • July 9, 1915 Germany surrenders South West Africa to Union of South Africa

    • July 9, 1916 The first cargo submarine to cross the Atlantic arrives in US from Germany

    • July 9, 1917 "British warship ""Vanguard"" explodes at Scapa Flow killing 800"

    • July 9, 1918 "101 killed & 171 injured in worst US train wreck, Nashville, Tenn"

    • July 9, 1918 "Great train wreck of 1918: In Nashville, Tennessee, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express killing 101 and injuring 171 people, making it the deadliest rail accident in United States history."

    • July 9, 1918 US Army's Distinguished Service Cross authorized

    • July 9, 1921 "Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar delivered his famous speech at Khilafat Conference, Karachi."

    • July 9, 1922 Johnny Weissmuller swims the 100 meters freestyle in 58.6 seconds breaking a world swimming record and the 'minute barrier'.

    • July 9, 1923 "Calgary Alberta, Guy Weadick holds first Chuckwagon Race at the Stampede, persuading 6 local ranchers to risk their wagons and horses in what will be billed as 'the half mile of hell'"

    • July 9, 1927 Atty William T Francis named minister to Liberia

    • July 9, 1944 World's largest circus tent catches fire at Ringling Brother's - Barnum & Bailey 2nd performance. 168 die. (Hartford Conn)

    • July 9, 1947 Britain's Princess Elizabeth & Lt Philip Mountbatten's engagement

    • July 9, 1948 "Pakistan issued first set of Postage stamp, having image of Constituent Assembly, Jinnah International Airport (Quaid-e-Azam International Airport), Shahi Fort."

    • July 9, 1948 "Satchel Paige, 42, debuts in majors pitching 2 scoreless inn for Cleve"

    • July 9, 1950 "13.15"" (33.40 cm) of rainfall, York, Nebraska (state 24-hour record)"

    • July 9, 1951 "Harry Heilmann baseball outfielder (Det), dies at 56"

    • July 9, 1951 Pres Truman asked Congress to formally end state of war with Germany

    • July 9, 1953 The first helicopter passenger service (NYC)

    • July 9, 1955 "Bill Haley & Comets' ""Rock Around the Clock"" tops billboards chart"

    • July 9, 1955 The Russell-Einstein Manifesto was released by Bertrand Russell in London.

    • July 9, 1956 Dick Clark's first appearance as host of American Bandstand

    • July 9, 1957 Discovery of element 102 (Nobelium) announced

    • July 9, 1958 "Giant splash caused by fall of 90 million tons of rock & ice into Lituya Bay, Alaska washes 1,800 feet up the mountain"

    • July 9, 1964 Number one hit on UK music charts - The Animals - The House Of The Rising Sun

    • July 9, 1967 "A team of mountaineers successfully climb the Old Man of Hoy, the expedition is televised by BBC television in a unique live outside broadcast."

    • July 9, 1968 "39.83 cm (15.68"") of rainfall, Columbus, Miss (state 24-hour record)"

    • July 9, 1968 "Allyn Edwards host (One Minute Please, Mr Citizen), dies at 53"

    • July 9, 1968 "John Indrisano actor (OK Crackerby), dies at 62"

    • July 9, 1971 "In Chile a 7.5 quaked killed 84 people, 447 injured, and 40,000 made homeless by this earthquake. The earthquake was centered 75 miles northwest of Santiago"

    • July 9, 1972 The first tour of Paul McCartney & Wings (France)

    • July 9, 1973 "9th Maccabiah games opens in Tel Aviv, Israel"

    • July 9, 1975 In Western Minnesota a 5.0 earthquake was the largest historical quake in Minnesota

    • July 9, 1976 Uganda asks UN to condemn Israeli hostage rescue raid on Entebbe

    • July 9, 1977 "Dr Loren Eiseley prof of Anthropology (Animal Secrets), dies at 69"

    • July 9, 1978 "American Nazi Party, holds a rally at Marquette Park, Chicago"

    • July 9, 1978 "Nearly 100,000 demonstrators march on Wash DC for ERA"

    • July 9, 1979 "A car bomb destroys a Renault owned by famed ""Nazi hunters"" Serge and Beate Klarsfeld at their home in France. A note purportedly from ODESSA claims responsibility."

    • July 9, 1979 Dr Walter Massey named director of Argonne national Lab

    • July 9, 1979 Voyager 2 flies past Jupiter

    • July 9, 1980 7 die in a stampede to see the pope in Brazil

    • July 9, 1980 "Walt Disney's ""The Fox & The Hound"" released"

    • July 9, 1981 The Jacksons begin a 36-city tour

    • July 9, 1982 "A Boeing 727 carrying Pan Am Flight 759 crashes in Kenner, Louisiana killing all 146 people on board and eight others on the ground."

    • July 9, 1982 A man breaks into Queen Elizabeth II's bedroom in what became known as the Michael Fagan incident

    • July 9, 1982 Margaret Thatcher begins her 2nd term as British prime minster

    • July 9, 1982 "Pan Am Boeing 727 crashes in Kenner, La, killing 153"

    • July 9, 1984 "York Minster was struck by a lightning bolt, the resulting fire rampaged through most of the building. However the cathedral valuables were rescued by clergymen and the ""Rose Window"" was not affected."

    • July 9, 1985 "Rafael Campos actor (Ramon-Rhoda, Sancho-V), dies of cancer at 49"

    • July 9, 1986 The New Zealand Parliament passes the Homosexual Law Reform Act legalising homosexuality in New Zealand.

    • July 9, 1988 """Facts of Life,"" Lisa Whelchel weds Steve Cauble"

    • July 9, 1988 "Barbara Woodhouse dog trainer, dies at 78 of a stroke"

    • July 9, 1988 Number one hit on UK music charts - Glenn Medeiros - Nothing's Gonna Change My Love For You

    • July 9, 1989 "First time Wimbeldon has both men & women's final on same day, Boris Becker beats Stefan Edberg & Steffi Graf beats Martina Navratilova"

    • July 9, 1989 "Two bombs explode in Mecca, killing one pilgrim and wounding 16 others."

    • July 9, 1990 "Howard Duff actor, dies at 76 of a heart attack"

    • July 9, 1991 "International Federation of Human Rights cites human rights violations committed by police and military personnel during Oka crisis in Quebec, Canada."

    • July 9, 1991 South Africa is reintroduced into the Olympic movement after 30 years of exclusion.

    • July 9, 1991 "St. Lazare Manitoba, 400 residents flee homes when train carrying highly corrosive acetic anhydride derails; emergency evacuation ends after six days."

    • July 9, 1993 "Peter Gill of the British Forensic Science Service announced that his team had positively identified the remains of Russia's last czar, Nicholas II, his wife, Czarina Alexandra, three of their five children, and four of their servant"

    • July 9, 1995 "Musical group The Grateful Dead perform the last concert of their 30-year career at Soldier Field, Chicago."

    • July 9, 1997 "Near Coast of Venezuela a 7.0 quaked killed at least 81 people, 522 injured, extensive damage and landslides in the Cariaco-Cumana area. At least 3,000 people were left homeless"

    • July 9, 1998 "In the Azores Islands a 6.2 quake resulted in ten people killed, about 100 injured and 1,000 left homeless on Faial."

    • July 9, 1999 Days of student protests begins after Iranian police and hardliners attack a student dormitory of University of Tehran.

    • July 9, 2002 "The African Union was established in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The first chairman was Thabo Mbeki, President of South Africa."

    • July 9, 2004 "After Jos Manuel Barroso's appointment to the European Commission, Portuguese President Jorge Sampaio announces that he will invite the second-in-line leader of PSD, Pedro Santana Lopes to form government."

    • July 9, 2006 "At least 122 people are killed after a Sibir Airlines Airbus A310 passenger jet, carrying 200 passengers on board veers off the runway while landing at Irkutsk Airport in Siberia in wet conditions."

    • July 9, 2006 "Italy beat France (5-3 in penalties after a 1-1 draw at full time) in the 2006 FIFA World Cup at Olympiastadion, Berlin"

    • July 9, 2010 "Queen Elizabeth to become a great-grandmother for first time. Grandson Peter Phillips and his wife, Autumn, are expecting in December 2010. - United Kingdom"







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