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    What happened on July 23

    • July 23, 1599 Caravaggio's first public commission for paintings

    • July 23, 1632 "300 colonists bound for New France depart Dieppe, France."

    • July 23, 1793 The Prussians conquer Mayence.

    • July 23, 1798 "Napoleon captures Alexandria, Egypt"

    • July 23, 1803 "Irish nationalist Robert Emmet, 25, leads a rebellion against the British He spoke with Bonaparte and Talleyrand last year in an effort to obtain French support, his small band of followers commits two murders and other acts of violence July 23 in a move to capture the viceroy, but the rioters are quickly dispersed Emmet escapes, goes into hiding, is captured August 25, tried by a special court, and hanged September 20
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    • July 23, 1803 Robert Emmett's insurrected in Dublin

    • July 23, 1808 "Spanish forces at Bailen force a French army of 18,000 under Gen Pierre Antoine Dupont, 43, to surrender July 23
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    • July 23, 1827 The first US swim school opens (Boston Mass)

    • July 23, 1829 "William Austin Burt patents ""typographer"" (typewriter)"

    • July 23, 1833 Corner stones laid for construction of the Kirtland Temple in Ohio

    • July 23, 1840 The Province of Canada is created by the Act of Union.

    • July 23, 1852 The first interment in US National Cemetary at Presidio

    • July 23, 1862 American Civil War: Henry W. Halleck takes command of the Union Army.

    • July 23, 1874 Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos is appointed the Archbishop of the Portuguese colonial enclave of Goa.

    • July 23, 1877 The first telephone & telegraph line in Hawaii completed

    • July 23, 1877 "The first US municipal railroad, Cincinnati Southern, begins operations"

    • July 23, 1880 "The first commercial hydroelectric power planet begins, Grand Rapids, Mich"

    • July 23, 1881 "The Federation Internationale de Gymnastique, the world's oldest international sport federation, was founded."

    • July 23, 1900 Pan-African Congress meets in London

    • July 23, 1903 Ford Motor Company sold its first car.

    • July 23, 1904 Ice cream cone created by Charles E Menches during La Purchase Expo

    • July 23, 1914 "Austria-Hungary issues an ultimatum to Serbia allowing the Austrians to find out who killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand. When Serbia denies Austria-Hungary their demands World War I is sparked on July 28, 1914"

    • July 23, 1916 "Australians enter the action in the battle of the Somme at Pozières and Mouquet Farm, France"

    • July 23, 1920 Kenya becomes a British crown colony

    • July 23, 1925 NY Yankee Lou Gehrig hits his first of 23 career grand slammers

    • July 23, 1926 Fox Film buys the patents of the Movietone sound system for recording sound onto film.

    • July 23, 1929 Fascist government in Italy ban the use of foreign words.

    • July 23, 1931 Ashmore & Cartier Is in Indian Ocean transferred to Australia

    • July 23, 1931 France announces they can't afford to send a team to 1932 LA olympics

    • July 23, 1936 "In Catalonia, Spain, the Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia is founded through the merger of socialist and communist parties."

    • July 23, 1937 Isolation of pituitary hormone announced (Yale University)

    • July 23, 1940 """Blitz"" begins, all-night raid on London"

    • July 23, 1940 "US Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles`s declaration on the US non-recognition policy of the Soviet annexation and incorporation of three Baltic States - Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania."

    • July 23, 1942 The Holocaust: The Treblinka extermination camp is opened

    • July 23, 1942 World War II: Hitler signed the Operation Edelweiss.

    • July 23, 1944 US forces invade Japanese-held Tinian in WW II

    • July 23, 1945 The process against Philippe Ptain begins.

    • July 23, 1947 First Navy all jet squadron (VF-17A) receives its first aircraft (FH).

    • July 23, 1947 "The first US Navy air squadron of jets, Quonset Point, RI"

    • July 23, 1948 Progressive party convention nominates Henry Wallace for President

    • July 23, 1948 "USS Putnum (DD-757) evacuates U.N. team from Haifa, Israel and becomes first U.S. Navy ship to fly the U.N. flag."

    • July 23, 1950 "USS Boxer sets record crossing of Pacific to bring aircraft, troops, and supplies to Korea at start of the Conflict"

    • July 23, 1952 Establishment of the European Coal and Steel community.

    • July 23, 1952 General Muhammad Naguib leads the Free Officers Movement (formed by Gamal Abdel Nasser - the real power behind the coup) in the overthrow of King Farouk of Egypt.

    • July 23, 1956 "Bell X-2 rocket plane sets world aircraft speed record of 3,050 kph"

    • July 23, 1956 The Loi Cadre is passed by the French Republic in order to order French overseas territory affairs.

    • July 23, 1958 The first 4 women named to peerage in House of Lords

    • July 23, 1961 Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) founded in Nicaragua.

    • July 23, 1962 Telstar relays the first live trans-Atlantic television signal.

    • July 23, 1962 The International Agreement on the Neutrality of Laos was signed.

    • July 23, 1964 "Egyptian munition ship ""Star of Alexandria"" explodes at dockside in Bone, Algeria. 100 die, 160 injured, $20 million damage"

    • July 23, 1964 Number one hit on UK music charts - The Beatles - A Hard Day's Night

    • July 23, 1965 "Beatles ""Help"" is released in the UK"

    • July 23, 1966 Cavern Club in Liverpool reopens

    • July 23, 1966 "Napoleon XIV releases ""They're Coming to Take Me Away, Ha! Ha!"""

    • July 23, 1967 "12th Street Riot: In Detroit, Michigan, one of the worst riots in United States history begins on 12th Street in the predominantly African American inner city (43 killed, 342 injured and ~1,400 buildings burned)."

    • July 23, 1967 "43 killed in racial rebellion in Detroit (2,000 injured, 442 fires)"

    • July 23, 1967 Pirate Radio Swinging Scotland closes down for financial reasons

    • July 23, 1967 Race riots claiming 43 erupts in Detroit

    • July 23, 1968 Fred Blasie wins 5th wrestling world championship belt

    • July 23, 1968 "Glenville Shootout: In Cleveland, Ohio, a violent shootout between a Black Militant organization led by Ahmed Evans and the Cleveland Police Department occurred. During the shootout, a riot began that lasted for five days."

    • July 23, 1968 PLO's first hijacking of an El Al plane

    • July 23, 1968 "Race riot in Cleveland, 11 including 3 cops killed"

    • July 23, 1968 "The first and only successful hijacking of an El Al aircraft took place when a 707 carrying 10 crew and 38 passengers was taken over by three members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). The aircraft was en route from Rome, Italy, to Lod, Israel."

    • July 23, 1969 Number one hit on UK music charts - The Rolling Stones - Honky Tonk Women

    • July 23, 1970 "Qaboos ibn Said, becomes Sultan of Oman after overthrowing his father, Said ibn Taimur."

    • July 23, 1972 Eddy Merckx (Belgium) wins his 4th consecutive Tour de France

    • July 23, 1972 The first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) is launched

    • July 23, 1973 "Ozark AL plane knocked out of the air by lightning, St Louis-36 die"

    • July 23, 1974 Greek military dictatorship collapses

    • July 23, 1976 "Wings release ""Let 'em In"""

    • July 23, 1977 Number one hit on UK music charts - Donna Summer - I Feel Love

    • July 23, 1977 Washington jury convicts 12 Hanafi Moslems on hostage charges

    • July 23, 1978 Israeli cabinet rejects Sadat's call for return of 2 Sinai areas

    • July 23, 1980 Billy Carter admits to being paid by Libya

    • July 23, 1980 River of No Return Wilderness Area designated by Jimmy Carter

    • July 23, 1980 Soyuz 37 ferries 2 cosmonauts (1 Vietnamese) to Salyut 6

    • July 23, 1982 The International Whaling Commission decides to end commercial whaling by 1985-86.

    • July 23, 1983 "Around 3,000 Tamils were slaughtered by Shinhalese Buddhist majority in Sri Lanka and some 400,000 Tamils fled to neighboring Tamil Nadu, India and a lot found refuge in Europe and Canada. This incident, known as Black July led directly to beginning of civil war in Sri Lanka."

    • July 23, 1983 "Gimli Glider: Air Canada flight 143 lands ""dead-stick"" in Gimli, Manitoba."

    • July 23, 1983 Number one hit on UK music charts - Paul Young - Wherever I Lay My Hat

    • July 23, 1984 Vanessa Williams becomes the first black Miss America. Resigns after nude photos of her appeared in Penthouse magazine.

    • July 23, 1986 Britain's Prince Andrew marries Sarah Ferguson

    • July 23, 1986 "In London, Prince Andrew, Duke of York marries Sarah Ferguson at Westminster Abbey."

    • July 23, 1988 "General Ne Win, effective ruler of Myanmar since 1962 resigns after pro-democracy protests."

    • July 23, 1988 Saskatchewan's Dave Ridgway kicks record 8 field goals vs Edmonton (CFL)

    • July 23, 1989 "FOX-TV tops ABC, NBC & CBS for first time (America's Most Wanted)"

    • July 23, 1989 Winds gust to 85 MPH at Fort Smith Arkansas

    • July 23, 1991 James Farentino of Dynasty arrested in Canada for cocaine possession

    • July 23, 1992 "A Vatican commission, led by Joseph Ratzinger, establishes it is necessary to limit rights of homosexual people and non-married couples."

    • July 23, 1993 Sarah Deal becomes first women Marine selected for naval aviation training.

    • July 23, 1995 Comet Hale-Bopp is discovered and is visibly seen with a naked eye nearly a year later.

    • July 23, 1997 Digital Equipment Company files antitrust charges against chipmaker Intel.

    • July 23, 1997 Spree killer Andrew Cunanan commits suicide in the upstairs bedroom aboard a Miami houseboat to avoid capture by the police

    • July 23, 1999 ANA Flight 61 is hijacked in Tokyo.

    • July 23, 1999 "Crown Prince Mohammed Ben Al-Hassan, is crowned King Mohammed VI of Morroco at the death of his father."

    • July 23, 2004 "Eleven years after its destruction, Stari most (the Old Bridge) in Mostar is reopened."

    • July 23, 2005 "Three bombs hit the Naama Bay area of Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, killing 88 people."







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